Download Young-Type Interferences with Electrons: Basics and by François Frémont PDF

By François Frémont

Since the invention that atomic-size debris might be defined as waves, many interference experiments were discovered with electrons to illustrate their wave habit. during this ebook, after describing the various steps that resulted in the current wisdom, we specialize in the robust hyperlink current among photon and electron interferences, highlighting the similarities and the variations. for instance, the atomic facilities of a hydrogen molecule are used to imitate the slits within the Young's well-known interference scan with mild. We convey, despite the fact that, that the fundamental time-dependent ionization theories that describe those Young-type electron interferences cannot reproduce the test. this significant element is still a true problem for theoreticians in atomic collision physics.

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3 The Role of Electrons in Ion Interferences Fig. 13 The same elements are shown as in Fig. 12, but at low velocity. The trajectory is curved, and the final velocity is different from the initial velocity Fig. 14 Scattering differential cross sections for He+ + Ne collisions, at energies from 10 eV up to 600 eV. The arrows show the structures originating from the potential variation due to the presence of electrons 47 48 3 Electron Interferences Using Macroscopic and Nanoscopic Interferometers Fig.

Suppose E E that one atom ! has two ground state hyperfine sub-levels k ; g1 ; 0 and K ; g2 ; 0 , where 0 is the ! number of transferred photons (Fig. 11) and k and K are the atom momenta associated with each state [12]. The atom absorbs one photon of energy  hω1 and emits by stimulated emission a E ! photon of energy hω2. Thus the atom can be in the ground state K ; g2 ; 0 with a given probability. The absorption and emission of the two photons is accompanied ! ! by a change in the momentum k , which is the sum of the two momenta k1 and k2 due to each photon (Fig.

Interference fringes with feeble light. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 15, 114 (1909) 34. : Quantum mechanics. Oxford University Press, London (1958) 35. : Eur. Phys. Lett. 1, 173 (1986) 36. : J. 1 The De Broglie Wave-Particle Duality The Concept of Wave-Particle Duality Parallel to the introduction by Einstein of the concept of quanta for light, Niels Bohr showed that the quanta idea could be extended to atoms [1]. Coming back to the model of an atom introduced by Ernest Rutherford, where the atom consisted of a “positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons kept together by attractive forces from the nucleus”, Bohr pointed out “difficulties of a serious nature arising from the apparent instability of the system of electrons”.

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