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By Rasul Bakhsh Rais

This e-book examines the customers for rebuilding country and kingdom in Afghanistan in regards to "Operation Enduring Freedom" performed by means of the overseas coalition. It begins via delineating the conceptual foundation of Afghanistan's prestige as a frontier kingdom. geo—strategic elements Afghanistan's place as an historic buffer among empires and its inner characteristics-—weak authority constitution, inner conflicts, interventions by way of pals, legitimacy of inner conquest, and trans-national ethnicities, the e-book presents insights into the original geo-political context of Afghanistan. while the writer deems the legacy of the former intervention for containment as an important contributing issue to the disease in Afghanistan's country and society, he attracts on classes from the earlier intervention to soothe present stumbling blocks and stalemate that's hindering political, social, and financial improvement in Afghanistan. targeting the impediments to improvement in Afghanistan, the historical past opposed to which the matter should be analyzed, and hence countered, is successfully set out. Incessant struggle and insurgency has resulted in mobilization alongside ethnic and non secular strains in Afghanistan and has had profound results at the forms of intuitions that experience perpetuated over the years. Ethnic and spiritual teams have utilized consistent strain at the kingdom and this dissonance has had enduring detrimental effects on state construction, social unity, and state-society relationships. Pre-emptive and reactive intervention by means of neighboring states and their hyperlinks to ethnic teams within Afghanistan is one other size that is analyzed. an intensive exploration into the geo-political historical past of social teams of Afghanistan with a radical account of the increase of varied energy contenders as a functionality in their background, their hyperlinks with exterior actors, and their conventional place within the indigenous vertical hierarchy are made. Unconventional battle and counter-insurgency operations funded by means of overseas and loca

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Adamec, Afghanistan’s Foreign Affairs to the Mid-Twentieth Century: Relations with the USSR, Germany, and Britain (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1974); V. Gregorian, The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan: Politics of Reform and Modernization, 1880–1946 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1969); Olaf Caroe, Soviet Empire, (London: Macmillan, 1954); William P. Coates and K. Zelda, A History of Anglo-Soviet Relations (London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1943; Arnold Fletcher, Afghanistan: Highway of Conquest (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1965); David Fromkin, “The Great Game in Asia,” Foreign Affairs vol.

As elsewhere, identity is a multilayered conception in Afghanistan. A person can be an Afghan, a Pashtun, Gilzai, and Ghaznavi depending on the circumstances and the social context within which he is expressing identity. The questions of ethnic identity and group solidarity have gained political significance as the twenty-eight-year-long war has vastly changed the population landscape of the country. We will discuss some of the legacies of the conflict and how they impact upon reconstruction of social and political life in Afghanistan later in this chapter.

This is the vision that the silent majority of the Afghans, tired of vicious cycle of violence, would like to pursue. There is realization among Afghan leaders and ordinary peoples that they need international assistance to overcome their difficulties, notably the stubborn legacies of the conflicts that continue to haunt them in the form of warlords, drug mafias, and remnants of the Taliban. There cannot be any two opinions about peace and stability being fundamental requirements Introduction 19 for reconstruction.

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