By James Jeans
This ebook should be defined as a student's version of the author's Dynamical thought of Gases. it truly is written, notwithstanding, with the desires of the scholar of physics and actual chemistry in brain, and people components of which the curiosity used to be almost always mathematical were discarded. this doesn't suggest that the booklet comprises no critical mathematical dialogue; the dialogue specifically of the distribution legislation is kind of specified; yet frequently the math is worried with the dialogue of specific phenomena instead of with the dialogue of basics.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases (Cambridge Science Classics)
A molecule which describes the free path PQ of fig. 8 with energy E may be regarded as transporting energy E from P to Q. If the mean energy E at P is equal to that at Q, this transfer of energy will be equalised by another in the opposite direction. But if the gas is arranged in layers of equal temperature parallel to the plane of xy, the two mean energies will not be equal, and the first molecule carries, on the average, an excess of energy _ dE dz to Q, while the second carries a deficiency of equal amount to P .
As we have seen, the heat-energy of a gas is the aggregate of the energies of its separate molecules, and the temperature of the gas gives a measure of this energy. Thus to raise the temperature of a gas, the energy of its molecules must be increased. The amount of heat or of energy needed to raise the temperature of unit mass by 1° is called the specific heat of the gas; it may be measured either in heat- or in energy-units. Equation (14) already obtained, namely dQ = NdE + pdv, (23) tells us how much energy is required to produce any specified change in the temperature and volume of a gas, and so provides a basis for a discussion of the specific heats of a gas.
If there are v molecules per unit volume, the chance that this volume shall enclose the centre of one of the molecules B,C,D,... is nvcr2. If the molecules B, C, Dt ... were all standing still in space, 4-2 44 A PRELIMINARY SURVEY the average distance that A would have to travel before it experienced a collision would be 1 77W 2 * This calculation reproduces the essential features of the freepath problem, but is generally in error numerically because it treats the molecule A as being in motion while all the other molecules stand still to await its coming.