By Tharwat F. Tadros
Surfactants are floor energetic brokers, molecules that experience an important position in emulsions, suspensions, and foams. They locate common software in own care, cosmetics, prescription drugs, agrochemicals and the meals undefined. Their class, actual houses, part habit, their results and purposes are lined during this publication.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Surfactants
The first molecule of this series is INUTEC® SP1 (Beneo-Remy, Belgium) that is obtained by random grafting of C12 alkyl chains. It has an average molecular weight of ∼ 5000 Daltons and its structure is given in Fig. 5. The molecule is schematically illustrated below which shows the hydrophilic polyfructose chain (backbone) and the randomly attached alky chains. The main advantages of INUTEC® SP1 as stabilizer for disperse systems are: 1. Strong adsorption to the particle or droplet by multipoint attachment with several alkyl chains.
The first case is that when mixing two surfactants with the same head group but with different chain lengths. 22) where x1 and x2 are the mole fractions of the respective surfactants in the system. However, the mole fractions should not be those in the whole system, but those inside the micelle. 23) The superscript m indicates that the values are inside the micelle. If x1 and x2 are the solution composition, then, x2 x1 1 + . 24) The molar composition of the mixed micelle is given by, xm 1 = x1 cmc2 .
Secondly, if two phases actually exist at the cmc, then equating the chemical potential of the surfactant molecule in the two phases would imply that the activity of the surfactant in the aqueous phase would be constant above the cmc If this was the case, the surface tension of a surfactant solution should remain constant above the cmc. However, careful measurements have shown that the surface tension of a surfactant solution decreases slowly above the cmc, particularly when using purified surfactants.