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By Leonard Susskind

During the last decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by way of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein s recognition that black holes have entropy. Stephen Hawking raised profound matters in regards to the lack of info in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in a global with gravity. for 2 many years those questions questioned theoretical physicists and at last resulted in a revolution within the method we predict approximately area, time, subject and knowledge. This revolution has culminated in a striking precept referred to as The Holographic precept , that is now a tremendous concentration of realization in gravitational learn, quantum box idea and straight forward particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String concept, develops and explains those ideas.

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Additional info for An introduction to black holes, information and the string theory revolution : the holographic universe

Sample text

Evidently the Rindler observer sees a world in which physical phenomena can be described in a completely self contained way. 31 Black Holes, Information, and the String Theory Revolution 32 The evolution from one surface of constant ω to another is governed by the Rindler Hamiltonian. 1) ρ=0 where T 00 is the usual Hamiltonian density used by the Minkowski observer. 2) where Π is the canonical momentum conjugate to χ. 3) The origin of the factor ρ in the Rindler Hamiltonian density is straightforward.

4 Vacuum pair fluctuations near the horizon A virtual fluctuation is usually considered to be short lived because it “violates energy conservation”. If the virtual fluctuation of energy needed to produce the pair is E, then the lifetime of the fluctuation ∼ E −1 . Now consider the portion of the loop (b) which is found in Region I. From the viewpoint of the Fidos, a particle is injected into the system at ω = −∞ and ρ = 0. The particle travels to some distance and then falls back towards ρ = 0 and ω = +∞.

19 we see two important features of the entropy of Rindler space. The first is that it is proportional to the transverse area of the horizon, B 2 . One might have expected it to diverge as the volume of space, but this is not the case. The entropy is stored in the vicinity of the stretched horizon and therefore grows only like the area. The second feature which should alarm us is that the entropy per unit area diverges like 1 2 . As we shall see, the entropy density of the horizon is a physical quantity whose exact value is known.

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