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By Saeed V. Vaseghi

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1 Four possible outcomes in a signal detection problem. 13 Sonar: detection of objects using the intensity and time delay of reflected sound waves. detector. The higher the threshold, the less the likelihood that noise would be classified as signal, so the false alarm rate falls, but the probability of misclassification of signal as noise increases. 10) The choice of the threshold reflects a trade-off between the misclassification rate PMiss(θ) and the false alarm rate PFalse Alarm(θ). 7 Directional Reception of Waves: Beam-forming Beam-forming is the spatial processing of plane waves received by an array of sensors such that the waves incident at a particular spatial angle are passed through, whereas those arriving from other directions are attenuated.

28) every additional bit in an analog to digital converter results in 6 dB improvement in signal–to–quantisation noise ratio. T. (1986) Adaptive Signal Processing Theory and Applications. Springer-Verlag, New York. B. L. (1958) An Introduction to the Theory of Random Signals and Noise. McGraw-Hill, New York. EPHRAIM Y. (1992) Statistical Model Based Speech Enhancement Systems. Proc. IEEE, 80, 10, pp. 1526–1555. G. (1963) Theory of Motion of Heavenly Bodies. Dover, New York. G. (1968) Information Theory and Reliable Communication.

15. 16 shows a simple diagram of a radar system that can be used to estimate the range and speed of an object such as a moving car or a flying aeroplane. A radar system consists of a transceiver (transmitter/receiver) that generates and transmits sinusoidal pulses at microwave frequencies. The signal travels with the speed of light and is reflected back from any object in its path. The analysis of the received echo provides such information as range, speed, and acceleration. 13) where A(t), the time-varying amplitude of the reflected wave, depends on the position and the characteristics of the target, r(t) is the time-varying distance of the object from the radar and c is the velocity of light.

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