Download Advanced Graphics on VGA and XGA Cards Using Borland C++ by Ian O. Angell PDF

By Ian O. Angell

This booklet exploits the mixed merits of an object-orientated method of programming, the person pleasant setting of Borland C++, and the top of the range special effects conceivable with VGA and XGA image adapters operating on IBM PS/2 (and suitable) machines. themes resembling modelling and transformation of gadgets, hidden floor elimination, delicate shading, shadows, transparency and reflections are coated. an evidence of a lot of these ideas, the underlying arithmetic and information buildings is supplied by means of the authors. This ebook will permit readers, no matter if an person built with an appropriate microcomputer, or a scholar taking a complicated sensible direction in special effects, to procure significant services during this sector of visible communique. This ebook could be of curiosity to undergraduates and laptop fans attracted to programming.

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Suppose that we have a line of logical colour 6 (binary 110) running through pixels coloured 0 through 7 (binary 000 through 111). 1 above gives the resulting 3-bit pixel colours for the above three operators. 1 (and in the Appendix) where we give the code for the VIewport class, you will fmd a method setype(op), where op is an integer, which enables normal plotting (REPLACE), OR, AND (if available on the card) or XOR, corresponding to op values 0, 1, 2 or 3 respectively. cpp", gives an example of XOR plotting.

We have to look no further than the popular fractal pattern, the Mandelbrot set, shown in Plate rna for an example of this approach. cpp•, will demonstrate. +c. Note that a complex number z is in fact just a two-dimensional vector, (zx, zy) say, and its square tis then (zxxzx- zyxzy , 2xzxxzy). The value of z then jumps about two-dimensional space, and we count the number of iterations, n, it takes for z to lie outside a circle of radius 2. If we think of the viewport corresponding to a rectangular area defined by comers with co-ordinates (startx, starty) and (endx, endy), each pixel can be used to defme a value for c, which in tum is used to calculate a sequence of values for z, which in tum gives us a value for n.

This distortion takes two forms. Firstly, each point inside the unit circle is put into the form (rcos9 , rsin9), where 9 is the angle made by that point with the positive xaxis, and r (~1) is its distance from the centre. It is then moved to position (r"cos9 , r"sin9) for some value of p. Secondly, the point is rotated by a further angle (1-r) * rotation. Obviously we cannot draw the infinity of points inside the square, and this raises the question of exactly what do we draw? What we actually do is to consider the square divided into a 21 by 21 grid lines, with each grid line defined as a sequence of 201 points.

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